The dark spores (conidia) are borne within cellular, more or less round fruiting structures (pycnidia) and are produced on small flask- or peg-like cells (annellides). Usually the spores are extruded through an opening at the top of the pycnidium and collect in a droplet of fluid. The species occur on living or dead plants. Holomorphs: Cucurbitaria, Didymosphaeria, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora, and related genera. Ref: Bestagno et al., 1958; Sutton, 1980.